Transplant Trial Watch

Gender differences in medication adherence among adolescent and young adult kidney transplant recipients.

Boucquemont J, Pai AL, et al.

Transplantation, 2018; [record in progress].

To determine whether adherence differs by gender, and whether gender differences vary by age in adolescent and young adult kidney transplant recipients.

Treatment adherence using electronic and self-report assessment methods.

136 patients (11-24 years, ≥3 months posttransplant and had a functioning graft) followed in 8 transplant centers in Canada and USA.

The primary outcomes were daily “taking adherence” (proportion of prescribed doses taken) and “timing adherence” (proportion of prescribed doses taken within 1 hour before to 2 hours after the prescribed dosing time), as measured using electronic pillbox monitoring. A taking adherence score and a timing adherence score were calculated for each day of the study for each participant. Secondary outcomes were standard deviation of tacrolimus trough levels, and self-reported adherence measured using the Medical Adherence Measure-Medication Module (MAM-MM), a semistructured interview.

3 months

CET Conclusions
This secondary analysis of an RCT evaluated whether gender differences exist in medication adherence among adolescent (11-16y) and young adult (17-24y) kidney transplant recipients during the 3 month run-in period of the RCT. Research staff and participants were blinded to the intervention allocation. Gender differences were measured by electronic monitoring, self-report measures and tacrolimus trough level variability. The study included 136 participants (83 men/boys and 53 females/girls). There were no differences in taking or timing adherence among the 11-16y group however taking and timing adherence was higher in women compared to men in the 17-24y group. These findings were consistent with previous studies.

Jadad score

Data analysis
Strict intention-to-treat analysis

Allocation concealment

Trial registration - NCT01356277

Funding source
Non-industry funded